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欧盟—中国关系|EU-China Relations
作者:管理员    发布于:2016-06-27 12:52:48   

                                    2016年6月22日,布鲁塞尔 Brussels, 22 June 2016

      作为世界三个最大经济体和贸易体中的两个,欧盟和中国对二者之间深刻而全面的伙伴关系有强烈的意愿。欧盟和中国已经在1975年建立了正式的外交关系,双方现在可以在具有广泛基础的框架之内继续发展双边关系。在一年一度的欧盟—中国领导人会晤的统领之下,现在欧盟与中国的关系已包含60余项实质性的、不同领域的对话。2013年通过的《中欧合作2020战略规划》是中欧关系中最高级别的共同文件,该文件列出了在和平、繁荣、可持续发展以及人文交流等领域的合作。
As two of the three biggest economies and leading traders in the world, the EU and China have a strong interest in a deep and comprehensive partnership. Having established official diplomatic ties in 1975, the EU and China can now build on a broad-based framework of bilateral relations. Under the umbrella of the annual EU-China Summit, EU-China relations today encompass over sixty substantive and sectoral dialogues. The EU-China 2020 Agenda for Cooperation, adopted in 2013, is the highest-level joint document in EU-China relations, setting out cooperation in the areas of peace, prosperity, sustainable development and people-to-people exchanges.
      欧盟和中国在过去的几十年里都发生了很大变化。中国的崛起以其前所未有的规模和速度,不仅使中国内部发生了变化,而且也使其在国际舞台发挥日益重要的作用。这些都为中欧合作提供了重要机遇,特别是为欧盟创造了更多的就业机会和增长,也对中国自身的经济改革方案提供了支持。2016年6月22日,欧盟外交与安全政策高级代表及欧洲委员会通过了关于欧盟对华新战略要素的《联合沟通文件》,指出了中欧双边如何利用这些机会给中国和欧盟公民带来长远的益处。
Both the EU and China have changed considerably in the past decades. The rise of China has happened with unprecedented scale and speed and has not only changed the country internally but has also given it more weight on the international stage. This presents major opportunities for EU-China cooperation, in particular in creating jobs and growth in the EU and in supporting China's own economic reform programme. The Joint Communication on elements for a new EU strategy on China, adopted by the High Representative and the European Commission on 22 June 2016, sets out how both sides can take advantage of these openings in order to promote long-term benefits for EU and Chinese citizens.

      繁荣Prosperity

      二十年前,中国和欧洲之间几乎没有开展贸易。今天,欧盟是中国最大的贸易伙伴,中国则是欧盟第二大贸易伙伴,仅次于美国。欧盟和中国之间的日均商品贸易总额超过15亿欧元,欧盟在2015年出口总额达到1700亿欧元,进口总额高达3500亿欧元。因此,欧盟和中国对彼此的繁荣和可持续增长都至关重要。
Two decades ago China and Europe traded much less with each other. Today, the EU is China's biggest trading partner, while China is the EU's second largest trading partner after the United States. Trade in goods between the EU and China is worth well over €1.5 billion a day, with EU exports amounting to €170 billion and imports to €350 billion in 2015. The EU and China therefore have a significant stake in each other's prosperity and sustainable growth.
      在一年一度的经贸高层对话的框架下,欧盟和中国一起致力于共同关心的重要问题,包括投资、服务、采购和知识产权等。中国公布的经济改革方案中的进展和互惠,尤其那些旨在让市场更具主导作用和令竞争环境更公平的改革,对欧盟很重要。中国需要在能力发展、政府政策和对产能过剩行业(特别是钢铁行业)的支持措施等方面建设性地开展国际对话与信息交流。一个以全球钢铁行业结构调整为主旨的全球论坛将为这类对话交流提供机会。
Under the umbrella of the annual High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue the EU works together with China on key issues of mutual interest, includinginvestment, services, procurement and intellectual property rights. Reciprocity as well as progress in China's announced economic reform programme, particularly those reforms aimed at giving the market a more decisive role and levelling the playing field, is key for the EU. China needs to engage constructively in international dialogue and information exchanges on capacity developments, government policies and support measures in overcapacity sectors, notably in steel. A global forum on steel to work on global restructuring issues should provide an opportunity for such engagement.
      2014年,流入中国的外商直接投资(FDI)中,近16%来自欧盟,使欧盟位列中国的外商直接投资供应者的前五。并且就这一点而言,仍有更多提升空间,欧盟对外直接投资总额中,仅有4.5%流入中国。中国对欧投资在最近十年中急速发展。2014年,中国对欧盟的直接投资达到121亿欧元,截止2015年对欧盟的投资已达中国全部对外直接投资的19%。欧盟已经成为中国最重要的对外投资目的地。双边正在磋商的《全面投资协定》,旨在在中国市场中改善对欧盟投资者的投资保护、市场准入和投资环境,反之亦然,该协议也旨在在欧洲保护中国投资者。
In 2014, the EU accounted for nearly 16% of total Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows into China, making it one of the top five FDI providers to the country. There is scope for much more, as China is the destination of only 4.5% of total EU FDI outflows. China's investment in the EU has grown exponentially in the past decade. In 2014 China's FDI flows into the EU amounted to €12.1 billion, and by 2015 the EU share of total Chinese FDI flows grew to 19%. This makes the EU the most important destination for Chinese outward investment. The Comprehensive Agreement on Investment, which is currently being negotiated between the two sides, aims to improve the protection of investments, market access and the investment climate for EU investors in China and vice versa.
      在第十七次中欧领导人会晤时,欧盟和中国确认了它们对双方的重要投资活动的强烈意愿,包括欧洲投资计划和“一带一路”倡议。为了所有欧洲和亚洲伙伴的利益,欧盟和中国都支持在亚洲加强互联互通的各种努力。成立于2015年的欧盟—中国互联互通平台,促进了双方在基础设施建设方面的合作,涵盖融资、相互可操作性、物流、海运和横跨欧亚大陆的铁路等。
At the 17th EU-China Summit, the EU and China confirmed their strong interest in each other's investment flagship initiatives, namely the Investment Plan for Europe, and the "One Belt, One Road" initiative. The EU and China also support efforts to improve connectivity in Asia for the benefit of all European and Asian partners. The EU-China Connectivity Platform, established in 2015, promotes cooperation in infrastructure, encompassing financing, interoperability, logistics, and maritime and rail links across the Eurasian continent.
      加强研究和创新合作是中欧关系的重心。欧盟和中国正在共同努力以使双方可以相互参与彼此的研究和创新资助项目。在欧盟的地平线2020的框架下,发展共同筹资机制和旗舰行动有助于促进在共同关心的战略领域里开展长期的联合研究与创新合作伙伴关系。
Strengthening research and innovation cooperation is central to EU-China relations. The EU and China are working towards ensuring reciprocal access to their research and innovation funding programmes. Developing co-funding mechanisms  and flagship initiatives in the context of the EU's Horizon 2020 is helping promote long-term joint research and innovation partnerships in strategic areas of common interest.
      活跃的中欧人文交流有助于加强跨文化对话、促进文化的多样性和民间社会的参与度。在过去的10年间,从中国到欧盟的游客数量显著增长,超过30,000名学者获得奖学金,得以在中国和欧洲学习、工作或从事研究。在一年一度的高级别人文对话的主导下,欧盟和中国通过青年和文化项目、节庆活动以及对话等促进双边的人文交流。此外,在中欧人员往来和移民领域对话的前提下,第一阶段打击非法移民已经取得成功。该对话现在的目标是推进签证便利化协定和针对非法移民的合作。
Active people-to-people engagement between the EU and China contributes to fostering inter-cultural dialogue, promoting cultural diversity and civil society participation. Tourism from China to the EU has increased significantly in the past decade, and more than 30,000 people have already benefitted from scholarships to study, work or conduct research in the EU and China. Under the auspicies of the annual High-Level People-to-People Dialogue, the EU and China promote the upgrading of their people-to-people exchanges through youth and culture projects, festivals and dialogues. Furthermore, the first steps to facilitate mobility and combat illegal migration have successfully been taken in the context of the EU-China Migration and Mobility Dialogue. The Dialogue is now aiming to move ahead with negotiating agreements on visa facilitation and co-operation against illegal migration.

      法治和人权Rule of Law and Human Rights

      欧盟致力于在世界各地促进人权,并定期表达其对中国的人权状况的关切。欧盟及其成员国将继续与中国和中国人民一道,促进人权、加强法治和公民社会。双方每年举行一次专门正式的欧盟—中国人权对话。2015年,欧盟人权事务特别代表兰姆布里尼迪斯对中国进行了第二次正式访问。
The EU is committed to the promotion of human rights around the world and regularly voices concerns over the human rights situation in China. The EU and its Member States will continue to work with China and its people to promote human rights and to foster the rule of law and civil society. A dedicated EU-China Human Rights dialogue is held every year. EU Special Representative for Human Rights Lambrinidis paid his second official visit to China in 2015.
      欧盟和中国也有共同意愿更好地了解各自的法律系统。在第十七次中欧领导人会晤上,双边商定设立中国—欧盟法律事务对话,其愿景是进一步加强欧盟与中国在一系列广泛事务上的合作,在法治问题上相互学习和交流最佳实践。第一次对话已于2016年6月举行。
The EU and China also have a common interest in better understanding their respective legal systems. The 17th EU-China Summit agreed to set up an EU-China Legal Affairs Dialogue with a view to further enhance EU-China cooperation on a broad range of issues using mutual learning and exchanges of best practices on the rule of law. The first dialogue was held in Beijing on 20-21 June 2016.

      外交及安全政策Foreign and Security Policy

      欧盟认为有很多机会来引导中国日益积极地参与涉及共同利益的领域的问题,包括全球治理、安全和防务问题。例如,中国和欧盟在非洲事务上有巨大的合作潜力。一起努力解决危机、建设非洲和平和安全的能力,以及促进经济发展和环境保护是对于非洲大陆的当务之急,如果欧盟和中国共同努力,上述目标能更好地实现。自2011年以来,中国和欧盟海上联合打击海盗的成功离岸合作,为扩大维和能力建设的陆上合作打下了基础。
The EU sees many opportunities to channel China's increasingly active participation in global governance, security and defence issues in areas of common interest. For example, Africa offers significant potential for EU-China cooperation. Working together on crisis settlement, building African peace and security capacities, and fostering economic development and environmental protection are key priorities for the continent and can be better achieved if the EU and China combine their efforts. Successful offshore cooperation on counter-piracy between European and Chinese maritime vessels since 2011 could lay the ground for extending cooperation on peacekeeping and capacity-building onshore.
      中国在最近的伊朗核谈的建设性的参与为其在中东地区的进一步积极合作奠定了基调。做为联合国安全理事会的常任理事国,中国是欧盟解决该地区很多冲突的重要伙伴。因此,一起努力解决阿富汗、叙利亚和利比亚的冲突,为难民问题寻求解决方案和反恐合作是中欧关系的重中之重。
China's constructive engagement during the recent Iran nuclear deal sets the tone for further active cooperation in the Middle East. As a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, China is an important partner for the EU in finding the solution to many conflicts in the region. Working together on tackling conflicts in Afghanistan, Syria and Libya, addressing the migration challenge and cooperating in the fight against terrorism are priorities, therefore, for EU-China relations.
      在出口管制、裁军和核不扩散问题上,欧盟正在进一步寻求和中国开展定期和实质性对话。双方均同意,朝鲜半岛无核化和重启六方会谈对确保东亚地区的稳定至关重要。这类合作为我们所有人创造更加安全的世界。
The EU seeks a regular and substantial dialogue with China on export control, disarmament and non-proliferation issues. Both sides agree that the denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula is essential to ensure stability in the East Asia region. Such cooperation creates a more secure world for us all.

      全球治理Global Governance

      欧盟鼓励中国支持全球标准和机制,提高以联合国为核心的有效多边主义。像二十国集团和世界贸易组织这样的国际机制是共同努力、找到应对全球挑战,如全球金融和经济危机解决方案的关键,中国和欧盟都在其中发挥着重要的作用。欧盟鼓励中国在世界贸易组织和多边及各方行动中积极地参与和发挥更积极的作用,承担起与中国从开放的贸易体系中所获利益相一致的责任,并赋予这些举措更宏伟的愿景。
The EU encourages China to support global standards and institutions, while promoting effective multilateralism with the United Nations at its core. International institutions such as the G20 and the WTO, in which both the EU and China play important roles, are the key fora to work together to find solutions to global challenges such as the world's financial and  economic crises. The EU encourages China to play a more engaged and active part in the WTO and in multilateral and plurilateral initiatives, assuming responsibilities in line with the benefits it draws from an open trading system and strengthening the ambition of these initiatives.
      中国在国际发展合作方面发挥着日益重要的作用。中欧发展对话应当进一步提升,以推进双边和多边发展合作,并支持《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》的实施,包括促进发展的有效性和捐助方的协调,也包括推动在多边论坛中的实际参与,以及在非洲和亚洲等地的实地参与等。
China plays an increasingly important role in international development cooperation. The development dialogue between the EU and China should be enhanced to advance bilateral and multilateral cooperation on development and to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including the promotion of development effectiveness and donor coordination, and also promote practical engagement in multilateral fora and on the ground, for example in Africa and Asia.
      在全球共同关切的问题上的发展合作,双方可以取得的成绩还有很多,尤其是气候变化、能源和资源效率,在这些领域双方都有着重大利害关系。最近的第二十一届联合国气候变化大会(COP21)的国际气候谈判和《2015 中欧气候变化联合声明》为在如下领域的进一步双边或国际气候合作提供了坚实的基础:国内减排政策、碳市场、低碳城市、航空和海运业的温室气体排放,以及氢氟烃(HFC)等。鉴于全国范围的排放交易系统(ETS)计划于2017年在中国的推广,当前正在进行的排放权交易合作将会扩大。加快向低碳或碳中性经济过渡是双方共同的责任。
There is much to be gained from developing cooperation on issues of global concern, in particular climate change, energy and resource efficiency, in which both sides have significant stakes. Based on the recent COP21 international climate negotiations and the 2015 EU-China joint statement on climate change, there is solid ground for more bilateral and international climate cooperation, in such areas as domestic mitigation policies, carbon markets, low-carbon cities, greenhouse-gas emissions from aviation and maritime industries, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). The on-going cooperation on emissions trading will be expanded in view of the planned nationwide Emissions Trading System (ETS) to be rolled out in China in 2017. There is  a shared commitment to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon or carbon-neutral economy.
      欧盟和中国一起致力于可持续环境治理。中国面临着空气、土壤、水的污染,以及不断增长的城镇化和农村发展的巨大挑战。欧盟—中国水资源平台、农业与农村发展的合作计划 ,以及中欧城镇化伙伴关系都是中国和欧盟成功合作,应对经济、社会和环境挑战的范例。中欧之间仍有可观的空间加强合作以应对全球关心的问题,如森林砍伐、非法砍伐和野生动物贩运等。
The EU and China are working together on sustainable environmental governance. China faces huge challenges in terms of air, soil and water pollution, increasing urbanisation and rural underdevelopment. The EU-China Water Platform, the Cooperation Plan in Agriculture and Rural Development as well as the EU-China Urbanisation Partnership are examples of successful cooperation between the EU and China to tackle the economic, social and environmental challenges. There is considerable scope to strengthen cooperation on tackling global concerns such as deforestation, illegal logging and wildlife trafficking.

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